Ray C. Woodcock, CIH
Occupational Hygiene Services to Business and Industry Since 1973

The images in this gallery are part of a collection acquired from Warren Wilson College. The images were originally copyrighted to the Keystone View Company - Meadville, PA ca. 1920. After the Keystone company went out of business in 1963, the collection was donated to UC-Riverside/California Museum of Photography. The images are now in the public domain, but have been used here with permission.

Building Up Automobile Tires - Akron, OH
In the crude rubber received at the factory are sticks, dirt, bits of leaves, and beetles. These are removed by grinding the rubber in a water bath. The particles of dirt are thus washed away. The rubber is now pure enough for the first process of manufacture.
The next step is to mix the rubber with chemicals. This is called compounding. In the factory here shown four or five hundred different chemicals are used to compound with rubber. Some of these are to give strength and toughness, others to give color to the rubber. It is possible to make rubber that is tougher than steel.
The rubber is now ready for manufacturing purposes. What next happens to it depends on the uses to which it is to be put. For example, if it is to be made into the bandages that dentists stretch across the mouth of patients, it must be rolled very thin. This process is called sheeting.
One of the greatest uses for rubber today is in the manufacture of automobile tires. You see here an automobile tire being built up. The framework of a tire is its body of fabric or tough cloth. On an iron core, the shape of the tire, this fabric is first wound in several thicknesses. This is what the men here are doing. It is a work that demands care and skill. To become an expert workman in this department a man must have a steady hand, deft fingers, a clear eye, and good judgment.
There is another way of building up tires. This is by using two crossed layers of heavy cords instead of fabric to wrap about the iron core. These cords have been filled with a rubber solution under high pressure. They are laid on the core by a machine. A tire so built up is called a Silvertown.

Port Blakley Mills - Near Seattle WA
Washington is our greatest lumbering state. It is estimated that in 1911 the state contained almost 12,000,00 acres of forests. These were made up mostly of cedar, fir, spruce, and hardwood trees. In 1913, Washington produced almost 4,600,000,000 feet of lumber. Louisiana ranked second, with over 4,000,000,000 feet. Mississippi, Oregon, Texas, North Carolina, and Arkansas followed in the order named. The great forests of Washington are fairly easy of access. If you will observe your map you will note that Puget Sound forms a great inland sea 120 miles from the Pacific Ocean. On the south flow many large rivers. On the southern border of the state, and crossing its eastern-central section is the great Columbia River, fed by many tributaries. These waterways furnish the means to carry the timber to shipping points. Along the Puget Sound have sprung up the greatest lumber mills in the world. The one you see here is the largest. It is at Port Blakely, near Seattle.
To supply these mills, hundreds of men are felling the trees in the forests of the interior year round. The logs are transported in the woods by engines to small railways. These railways lead to main lines of trackage, or, more often, to rivers. On the river banks the logs are made into huge rafts and then floated to the mills.
In front of you is a great boom made up of hundreds of fine logs ready for the saws. You see beyond the sawmill the masts of sailing vessels. The lumber is loaded on these vessels and is shipped to Australia, South Africa, Japan, Europe, and South America.

Automobile Manufacture - Michigan
This is the interior of a great automobile factory. Row after row of chassis are here to be seen. On the left hand, differentials and rear axles are being assembled. When this assembling is done, the chassis are equipped with the motors and the machine is set running while the wheels are off the floor. Then each chassis is equipped with the tester's seat and is given a trial drive before the body is put into place.
Not every automobile factory makes all its parts. In some plants these parts are merely assembled. That is, the ball bearings may be made in Philadelphia, the steel frame work in Pittsburgh, the tires in Akron, and so on. Each of these special factories may supply a number of automobile manufactories with its specialty, made according to certain specifications. The automobile factory puts these together, and so turns out a finished car.
Our output of these machines is increasing rapidly. In 1916 we made about 70% more than in 1915. In 1915 we produced 75% more than the year before. Most of our importations of rubber are for automobile tires. In 1915 we shipped into this country $159,000,000 worth of rubber. Gasoline by millions of gallons is needed to furnish motive power. Our whole industrial development has been changed by the automobile.
Motor trucks haul grain and livestock to market. They transport great loads or raw materials and finished goods in our cities. Traffic on our city streets has been completely changed. It moves far more swiftly than previously. Farmers are no longer several hours travel from cities. Distance has been shortened, and time gained by the introduction of this modern machine.

Testing the Automobile Motor - Detroit MI
In this room of a Detroit automobile factory the motors are tested before they are placed in the chassis. This is the last operation in assembling the motors. It is called the block test. You can see that the motor in front of the inspector is hitched to an electric motor. If the engine works all right it is approved, and then is installed in the chassis.
The view suggests the hundreds of parts that have to be brought together in the motor of an automobile. If you are skilled enough, you can tell the make of the machine.
Detroit is the center of the world's automobile manufacture. Far more "cars" are made in this city than any other. In fact, the industry has largely centered in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and New York. Detroit, Flint, Jackson, Lansing, Cleveland, Toledo, Indianapolis, Buffalo and New York are important centers of the industry.
Perhaps the greatest single change wrought by the automobile is in the country. The farmer is no longer out of touch with the city. To run his machine, he has built better roads. In some of our Middle Western States, automobile trucks do the hauling. The housewife does her shopping at a city fifteen miles away, after supper. Mail is daily delivered at the door by an automobile. In Iowa, one person out of every 13 owns a "car"; in Nebraska, one out of 16.
The Great War in Europe was a battle of motor trucks, delivering ammunition and shifting men. The "tanks" used by the British were huge steel-clad tractors that laid their own tracks ahead of the wheels. They could clamber over the deepest shell holes and wide trenches. They were equipped with machine guns.

Harvesting Wheat in England
In some parts of Great Britain grain is cut with reaphooks or scythes, just as it was here less than 100 years ago. But this is not true in the great midland grain belt of England. In fact one sees harvesting machinery all through the British Isles. Among the hills, however, one still sees the old-fashioned tools in use.
American machinery is generally used. In the broad wheat fields of England, the meadows of Wales, or the oat fields of Scotland you can see harvesters made in America. Mowers, binders, plows, cultivators - all bearing an American name - may be bought in the hardware shops.
We often think of England as a country of large cities. We would be more nearly correct if we thought of it as a land of well-tended fields and neat villages. England was once a farming country. There are too many people now to have land enough for all to farm, besides, most of the land is held by large estates, and the farmer at best can only rent it. Few men own the ground they till in England. For this reason many of the fields are "run down."
England does not rank high as a farming country for other reasons. A great part of its people go into the many factories. Another large part sail its thousands of ships. Still another part are busy in its iron and coal mines. England now gets much of its wheat from Canada and the United States. Its farms were formerly noted for their cattle and sheep. Now its beef and mutton comes from Australia, and Argentina.
The English farm is much prettier to look at than are our American farms. The heavy rains and the lighter winter make the grass and trees a wonderful green. The fences are usually beautifully kept hedges. Great oaks stand out like sentinels beside quiet lakes or along streams.

Pouring Copper into Molds - Calumet MI
Copper-bearing rock is blasted free from the lode, or mother vein, and then dumped into tram cars. These tram cars hold as much as 2½ tons of the rock. They are run on tracks to the elevator shaft and the mineral is raised to the surface. It is dumped into "skips" which hold 7½ tons. From the skips the copper rock goes to the rock house to be crushed. Then it is loaded into 40-ton cars for shipment to stamp mills.
At the stamp mills the rocks are crushed, concentrated, and washed, and the product goes to a smelter, such as is shown here. Heat is the great factor in reducing the pure copper from the stamped rock. The molten metal is dipped from the furnaces and poured into little molds. Observe the manner in which the dipper is operated. A chain is fastened to a sliding pulley which runs on a steel beam. This arrangement permits free movement of the ladle. The long handle allows the man to work at some distance from the hot metal.
These processes of working copper on a large scale have been developed recently. Our demands for copper have increased a thousand fold in the last few years. This is largely due to the calls made by electrical appliances. Copper is the best conductor of electric current known. Every time you talk on the telephone or ride in an automobile or street car, you do so because of the work of the men in the copper mines. There are annually produced in the world over 2,000,000,000 pounds of copper. The United States furnishes 56% of this. Michigan was formerly our greatest copper-producing state. Arizona now leads, with 33% of our copper. Montana is second with 23%; Michigan is third with 13%.

Marble Quarry - Proctor VT
This, the largest marble quarry in the world, is operated by the Vermont Marble Company, which obtained the foremost rank among companies operating in marble throughout the world. Its precedence came from the masterly ability of its first president, Redfield Proctor, who greatly simplified the methods of quarrying and substituted machinery for manual labor.
Professor Brainard, in his Marble Border of Western New England, states that the marble formation of this region extends along the western borders of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont, and into New York south of Lake Champlain. These great beds are from 1,000 to 2,000 feet in thickness, though only in certain layers of the middle portion are suitable for the production of marble for building or statuary.
The prevailing colors of Vermont marble are white and bluish; but green mottled, and blue-black, even pink and chocolate-red varieties are found in abundance.
Marble is quarried also in other states of the Union, but most of the ornamental marbles are imported. The chief foreign marble deposits are found in Italy is famous for its white marble. The ornamental marble, of course, is worth about ten times as much as the structural kind.


Making Paper Money - Washington, DC
The making of paper money is under the control of the Treasury Department. Here you see the printing of bills in the bureau of printing and engraving. There is nothing unusual about this printing, but a great deal of care must be taken to see that the proper plates are used, in every case. Each bill is a part of a series and is marked with its proper letter and number.
The most interesting process in making paper money is in the making of the paper. At Dalton, Massachusetts, there is a so-called "Government Mill" owned by the Crane family, which makes 99% of the paper used in our greenbacks. This mill is a three-story brick building of simple construction, but inside it is a process of paper making that is generally not known. Each piece of paper money contains two lines of silk fiber. The process of inserting this silk fiber is called the Crane process. You would not be allowed to see how these fibers are inserted if you were permitted to visit the mill. Any one who might be fortunate enough to re-discover the process, would not be allowed to make this kind of paper. If he does, he is subject to a fine of $5,000 and 15 years in prison.
The paper is sent to the Treasury Department in packages of 1,000 sheets. The printing of the bills is done from plates on hand presses. Each pressman is given one package of note paper, enough to make 4,000 bills. With the aid of one woman helper, he prints 2,000 bills a day, on one side only. At the end of the day all stock is carefully checked before the workmen can leave. This is to prevent stealing, in the printing department of the Treasury, over 600 people are employed.

Spreading Manure and Plowing with Tractor, Nebraska
This is a typical farm scene on the prairies near Omaha, Nebraska. A manure spreader is pulled by horses ahead of a tractor that is drawing a gang plow behind it.
Farmers have learned that it pays to fertilize their ground each year. Many plants do this - plants such as clover. The long roots of clover bring much nitrogen to the soil. This is the reason a field that has been in clover grows good corn. But besides fertilization by plants it pays to add manure to soil. Rotten straw, manures from animals, bone dust and other prepared fertilizers are much used. The man here is spreading manure from barns where animals have been sheltered. The manure is pitched into the box and hauled to the field. The spreader is then thrown in gear. This spreader throws the manure out in tiny bunches so that it is evenly scattered. Hence, the name "spreader." This spreader is driven by a chain fastened to a sprocket on the hind wheels of the wagon.
The tractor is a new machine on farms. It is more and more taking the place of horses for heavy work such as plowing. All day long the tractor works without getting tired. In tough sod a team of three horses finds a small breaking plow a heavy load. A tractor can easily draw in the same sod a plow that cuts several furrows at once. One plow sets just back of another on gangs. The depth is adjusted by levers.
Much of the work on the farm is now done by machinery. There are engines to grind feed and to pump water; tractors to pull plows and other farm implements; mowers, binders, hayloaders - the list is endless. Formerly farmers did most of their work by hand. Now machinery takes a large part of the farmer's burden.

Harvesting Barley with Tractor Near Ft. Collins CO
We hear much these days about "increased production." By this is meant that more of everything should be grown or manufactured. And this should be done with as little use of man-power as possible.
This view could well be called "Two Men Doing the Work of Thirty Men and Twenty Horses." For here you see two men taking care of labor that thirty men usually do with many teams. Their machine cuts the barley, and does away with binding it and setting the sheaves in stocks by threshing out the grain at once. The threshing alone regularly requires a score of men and a dozen horses at least. How can two men do so much?
The man nearer to you is taking care of the power that runs the machine. This power is a gasoline tractor. It is built low and heavy so that its barred wheels have no trouble clinging to the ground. Pulling the cutter and thresher behind it is child's play for a tractor like this.
The second man oversees the other half of the machine, which works in this way. The upper part of the standing grain is driven against a sharp sickle by the revolving reel that you see to the left. The heads of grain fall on a moving canvas that carries the barley up into the thresher. There the grains are quickly beaten from the heads by heavy iron teeth. The chaff and straw are blown out behind, while the grain falls down into sacks where it is weighed, tied, and dropped on a platform.


Steel Ingot on the Table of the Blooming Mill - Pittsburgh, PA
After the iron has been melted in the blast furnace and carbon has been driven into it, it is tested to see that it has a certain degree of purity. Then it is dipped into a large ladle or pail, from which it is let into molds. In these it is covered with sand, until it has cooled to a proper temperature. These molds are taken to the blooming mill, where the ingots are lifted out by a large crane and placed upon the blooming table. It is one of these hot ingots that you see lying on the table in the center of the view.
Just beyond the table is the blooming machine. The rollers on which the ingot is resting are set into motion, and drive the ingot into one of the five openings which you see in this machine. Here between great rollers, the hot steel is crushed to a smaller size. Then the table is lifted by its own machinery and the ingot is driven between another pair of rollers which make it still smaller. The action is repeated on a still higher plane between another pair of rollers. When the ingot comes from this third process, it has been made into the size desired. Briefly the whole process is that of rolling the hot steel until it is as small as it needs to be. You will observe the streams of water in the mill pouring down on the rolls. This is to keep them from becoming overheated from the ingot.
By this method of blooming an ingot can be made into any desired shape. If steel rails are wanted, the block comes out 6 inches square. It is then called a bloom. It may be rolled thin - only an inch or two in thickness. In that case it may be used as steel plating for vessels and for boilers.

Scraping Hair from Hides, Tanning Mill - Montreal, Canada
Salted hides are shipped from slaughterhouses to tanning mills to be made into leather. When they reach the mill they are first soaked in vats of water. After they are dried they are put into a large drum, the inside of which contains many pins. As the drum revolves, the hides are softened so they can be readily worked. You see in the extreme background a portion of one of these drums. From the drums the hides are taken to vaults where they decay in a cold sweat for a couple of weeks. Then they are taken to the unhairing machine. It is this machine that you see in the foreground.
The hides are run between two rollers which remove most of the hair. The hair is scooped from the floor, is placed into wheelbarrows, and scattered on the floor of the drying room. It is used later in the making of plaster, mattresses, and in upholstery.
From the unhairing room the hides are taken to the beaming room where they are drawn over huge beams, or logs. Here they are scraped with knives so as to remove all the particles of flesh or hair that remain. All these processes are in preparation of tanning.
Hides and skins are changed into leather by tanning. The word comes from "tannin", a chemical substance found in the barks of many trees. The bark of the chestnut, elm, pine, and spruce are rich in tannin. The hides are first placed in vats containing a weak solution of this tannin. Here they remain for several days. Then they are placed into vats containing a stronger tannin; and so on to succeeding vats. By the end of 6 or 7 months the hides have been changed into fine leather. In some places chemicals are used in the making of chrome leather.

Printing Room in Cotton Mill - Lawrence MA
The gray cotton cloth that comes from the loom in singed over a gas flame to make it smooth. It is then bleached to make it white. The next process is coloring or designing it.
Special artists paint attractive designs which are copied on zinc plates and transferred to copper rollers. Only that part of the design that is in one color is put on a roller. Enough rollers are needed to cover all the colors the design calls for. These rollers are supplied with the proper colored inks. As they revolve they print the white cloth as it speeds under them. Great care must be taken to see that all colors are properly registered. That is, that part of the design on each copper plate must fall exactly where it belongs or the colors will overlap or underlap. The view shows the enormous extent of one of these printing rooms. You will observe the printed cloth coming over. A foreman is here seen inspecting a bit of the print.
After it is printed the cloth is run over large copper cylinders filled with steam. The cloth is next folded down in great piles. It is then soaped and washed to make it clean. Again it is drawn over steam cylinders to dry it. It is then starched and stretched and dried--all by special machines. Then comes the calendering, or ironing, of the cloth is to be smoothly finished. If the cloth is not to be smooth, it is run through a napping machine which scratches the surface till it is fuzzy. After the goods have been ironed or napped it is folded, measured, and put on bolts containing 35 or 40 yards of cloth.
The factory you have seen in this view finishes about 5,000,000 yards each week. This means that enough cloth of different widths is here made in a year to reach around the world 6 times.

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